Citroën’s design future innovation and simplicity

We believe that cars are becoming overcomplicated and overdesigned. The Cactus M is all about the spirit of simplicity. All the best old Citroën have a romantic feeling to them: the 2CV, the Méhari, the DS, the car dvd, the android car GPS. That’s what we’re trying to recapture here.

Cars are becoming more complicated yes, but don’t assume everyone wants more gadgets. My young designers in their 20s are buying ‘young-timers’ in their spare time – ’80s and ’90s cars like Porsche 944s. They appreciate simple pleasures. If we do add technology like safety features to our range, they should operate by car dvd player seamlessly in the background.

We’ve designed the Cactus M around the surfer lifestyle: we spoke to real surfers and they loved icons like the VW Combi and our old Méhari beach buggy. But why shouldn’t modern cars slot into people’s lifestyles too? I hope in future we can offer gm navigation for more niches, so customers don’t have to go to aftermarket suppliers like Thule to carry their surfboards and bicycles. We should be providing for our customers’ needs.

Airbump is an example of design and engineering working hand in hand. The styling team came up with the concept originally and had no idea how it might work in production. It could have been inflatable or a special material – but the engineers went away and made it work. People either love Airbump or hate it. We will continue to develop the technology include android car gps, but it won’t feature on every new Citroën moving forwards. It divides opinion too much.

We love pushing our designs to the limits, but we have to be constrained by economic reality. Headlamps are a case in point: we can do amazing things with LED lights, but one LED costs more than six bulbs. There’s no point designing something that’s going to add €500 to the retail price if it puts the car out of reach of its typical customers.

Innovation is what Citroën is all about. The DS famously pushed the boundaries and so did the Traction Avant – one of the first cars with a monocoque chassis. It made it 200-300kg lighter than the competition. That’s true innovation.

Citroën can do luxury cars with top class android car stereo still – it’s just a different expression. It can be relaxing, like yachting. That’s the French meaning of luxury – it’ll be very different from the German premium way of doing it.Depending on the project we’re working on, we occasionally ask the Citroën heritage team to bring up one of the old models which come with car dvd player from our back catalogue. We can’t drive them, but they do spend time in our studio. There’s no greater inspiration.’

Turbo Diesel Pick Up Trucks and Fuel Dilution Issues

In the past most fuel dilution issues of crankcase oil in turbo charged diesel engines meant there was a mechanical problem of some kind.

For 2007 and newer Ford 6.4L, Dodge 6.7L and Gm/GMC 6.6L turbo diesel engines, the emission control systems sometimes are the culprit, as these have been installed to meet more stringent environmental protection agency requirements pertaining to soot.

Not everyone will experience dilution problems, as it will depend largely on how you operate your vehicle. Post 2007 turbo diesels are equipped with a Diesel particulate filter as mandated by the environmental protection agency. These filters reduce the soot emitted by as much as 85%. After so long, these filters have to go through a cleaning process called regeneration. Regeneration can occur during operation when exhaust gas temperatures reach 1,100 degrees. This happens regularly when the engines are worked as intended, such as towing and hauling and is called passive regeneration. It is when these engines are operated around town with no load is when temperatures are to low to passively burn off the soot.

When temperatures do not reach 1,100 degrees, an active regeneration must take place. Two systems are used. In-stream injection and In-cylinder post injection. What happens is raw diesel fuel is introduced into the diesel particulate filter increasing the internal temperature to burn off the soot that has accumulated.

With In-stream injection, the fuel is introduced through a separate injector either behind the turbo charger or in the exhaust stream just prior to the particulate filter. This type of active regeneration is largely used on medium to heavy-duty diesel engines. In-stream does not contribute to fuel dilution.

In cylinder post injection has been adopted by the manufacturers of lighter turbo diesel trucks, mainly because of the lower cost. With this system, the diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinders with the present injectors but on the exhaust stoke as well as the compression stroke, sending the unburned fuel through the exhaust ports to the particulate filter and be burned that way. This system works well at delivering the fuel to the particulate filter but has the drawback of promoting fuel dilution of the crankcase oil. As the fuel is injected on the exhaust stroke, fuel is able to pass by piston rings and wash down the cylinder walls as well, entering the crankcase and diluting the oil. Diesel fuel is a solvent and can reduce oil viscosity and film strength of the oil. An increase in oxidation can also occur.

At this point, there is no correlation between fuel dilution and abnormal engine wear. This is a rather new issue and still being studied. Condemnation limits have been set at 5%. Oil analysis samples have shown 7 to 10% dilution rates.

If you have one of these turbo diesels and work it hard, active regeneration will be at a minimum, as will the chance of higher limits of fuel dilution. It will be beneficial for you to have your oil analyzed periodically to see what the saturation level may be in your oil. It would also be a good idea to use premium oil that can better withstand the effects of fuel dilution.

In closing, for the 2011 Ford and General Motors are changing to a system called selective catalytic reduction, eliminating In-cylinder post injection. The Dodge Cummins turbo charged pickups will continue to use In-cylinder Injection for the upcoming year.

Increased Fatality Rates Due to Commercial Truck Rollover Accidents

Rollover car accidents are the most deadly of all types of auto wrecks. A recent article in the Accident Reconstruction Journal reported that one third of all car accident fatalities in America are attributed to rollover crashes. About 50 percent of rollovers in SUVs and passenger trucks involve fatalities. Commercial trucks that rollover during an accident result in fatalities in an overwhelming 60 percent of cases. When a commercial vehicle causes an accident, it is important that victims seek legal assistance from an experienced Arizona personal injury law firm.

— Electronic Stability Control for Prevention of Commercial Truck Rollover Accidents —

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is working diligently to curb deadly accidents among buses and commercial trucks, the most top-heavy of vehicles. Safety standards proposed for federal law by the NHTSA include electronic stability control mechanisms for large commercial vehicles. Similar regulations were already enacted for passenger vehicles like SUVs and pickups. That law went into effect in 2012. It is the firm belief of the NHTSA that the law is already positively affecting the number of accidents resulting in rollovers and rollover fatalities.

The NHTSA also estimates that up to 56 percent of large commercial vehicle rollovers could be prevented through electronic stability control. The organization believes that it would also reduce loss-of-control accidents of these vehicles by 14 percent. Up to 2329 crashes each year could be prevented with 858 fewer injuries and 60 fewer fatalities for every 12 months.

Electronic stability control systems monitor vehicle movement and steering. If ESC senses a problem in stability, the system can help the driver keep the vehicle under control by braking or self-correcting the car’s steering.

If a law is enacted for electronic stability control on commercial vehicles, the production rule would apply to automakers two to four years after adoption. Many vehicles already have this technology in place and would not need to be changed to meet the law’s requirements. The NHTSA rules would take effect two or four years after they are adopted, depending on the type of vehicle. The technology is already available and used in various vehicles on the road today.

— Causes of Rollover Crashes of Commercial Trucks —

Clearly, design of commercial trucks is a factor in rollover accidents. The high center of gravity of high-profile vehicles such as these cause overturning during maneuvers on sharp turns, curves, on ramps and off ramps. This is because the vehicle is maneuvered but inertia keeps the load going its original direction, the direction of the truck before its last maneuver. The vehicle then rolls, often exacerbated through driver errors such as misjudgments in speed, load height and heaviness, failure to secure the load, or simple driver distraction.

Truck drivers often drive while drowsy. Another contributing factor of commercial truck rollover accidents is that of errors made by the driver when controlling the vehicle. Steering, acceleration and braking are common driver errors.

One cause of truck rollovers that many people are unaware of is lack of visual search. This means that the driver is not adequately aware of surroundings, other vehicles and obstacles in the roadway. Most of these accidents occur in traffic. Regardless of root cause, most rollover accidents of commercial trucks come down to how the driver was operating the vehicle.

— Prevention of Commercial Truck Rollover Accidents —

To prevent rollovers of commercial trucks, experts are studying the specific causes of these crashes. Some changes to the vehicles can be made, like that of electronic stability control. Roadways can also be changed by design to prevent rollover accidents. An example of this is through inclusion of signs at freeway exits that require trucks to reduce speed limit. Another example is for devices in vehicles to make drivers aware of dangerous conditions for load-bearing vehicles. But these are expensive changes that would take years upon years to gain real benefit from, in reduction of truck rollovers.

Prevention through driver training programs is a clearer route to reduction of these deadly accidents. Because this training is not presently a requirement, even commercial driver training programs that have entire chapters of text on the subject rarely delve into prevention to an adequate degree.

According to Aaron Crane of Cantor Crane, “The truth is that most of these commercial truck rollover accidents are proven to be the fault of the driver. Through personal injury cases from these accidents, drivers’ trucking companies are forced to pay large sums of money to those injured. Through the ‘pain’ in these settlements for the trucking companies, it is hoped that they will start exercising stricter controls of prevention and training for their drivers.”

Simply through prevention programs, these trucking companies could save themselves large sums of money.

Proving a Defect Car Part Was Responsible for Your Car Accident

Sometimes car accidents are not the result of driver negligence. There are cases where the liability is with the manufacturer who failed to ensure a vehicle is safe before putting it in the hands of a customer. In such cases, the plaintiff must prove how the manufacturer failed and why they should be held responsible for the resulting accident.

— Automotive Defects Are More Common Than You May Think —

There are three kinds of defects that may affect automobile safety. The first is in design, with the vehicle being flawed even before it was built. Normal usage of a poorly designed vehicle can result in injury. A good example of this type of defect is a car in which the fuel line connections create potential for fire.

A second type of defect is in manufacturing. A manufacturing defect occurs when parts are not properly or well made. If the parts on a vehicle are not the right shape or size, they can fail to work or come loose and cause injury to the driver, occupants or other people on the roadways.

The third type of defect is a warning defect. This is a failure by the manufacturer to notify customers of a known vehicle danger. An example of this type of defect is when the manufacturer knows that a part has resulted in multiple accidents, injuries or death of customers and yet the manufacturer does not issue a recall of customers with that same type of vehicle known to contain the defect part.

— Overview of Vehicle Defects —

Safe operation of a vehicle can be disrupted by defective auto parts. Such defects may be electronic or mechanical. Even the software designed to keep drivers and passengers safe can be defective. A defective part may lead to accidents. When enough of these types of problems have been found in association with a particular car model, a recall is issued.

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration requires manufacturers to issue recalls when parts do not meet safety standards. This is done to ensure future accidents do not occur due to the same known cause. Over 390 million cars and trucks have been recalled to date, with 66 million auto parts and 46 million tires being replaced due to defects.

Liability is determined when the defect affects people. Injury and death can result from a vehicle part that breaks, with manufacturers possibly being held liable for the accident damages.

— Damages Due to Defective Parts —

Vehicle defects often destroy cars and trucks from within, where the defects may not be perceptible by drivers. Defects can cause accidents affecting multiple people and property. Each defect can cost thousands of dollars in destruction with injuries to people that include broken bones, abrasions, contusions and minor injuries.

— Liability in Defective Parts —

It is up to the plaintiff in a personal injury case to prove auto defect resulted in an accident. Because these cases can be quite complex, plaintiffs usually enlist the help of an experienced personal injury lawyer. The lawyer may conduct an investigation to gain evidence of the defect that caused the accident.
For such a case to be successful in court, the plaintiff must prove that the defect caused or contributed to the accident. For manufacturer liability to be proven, the plaintiff must show that the defect originated from the manufacturing process or otherwise while the vehicle was in the hands of the manufacturer.

When a defect is proven to have existed while under the manufacturer’s control, damages to the plaintiff must have occurred for any financial liability on the part of the manufacturer. A personal injury lawyer will review case information, circumstances and documentation to establish proof of damages caused by the defect in whole or in part.

— Working with a Lawyer for a Defect Case —

When buying a vehicle, drivers entrust that the vehicle meets safety standards and that the quality of that vehicle will ensure safety of those using it. When accidents happen due to a defect, injuries may be inflicted on the driver, passengers and others on the road. Lives may even be lost.

There are many things that a lawyer may need from the accident victims during a case, such as cooperation in not tampering with the vehicle until an examiner can inspect it. Defective auto part cases are particularly sensitive in this realm because it must be proven that the defect was from the manufacturer and not as a result of tampering after the car was sold to the customer. Documentation that may be required can include vehicle purchase paperwork, service records, records of damage, personal medication lists from the driver, insurance transaction details and traffic analysis.

The difficulty of a defect case involves the knowledge and experience of a personal injury attorney. Such an attorney has the right awareness, investigations connections and resources for proving such a case, when a defect exists.

Independent Car Insurance Estimator

Car insurance estimator is a free tool for you to calculate the average amount of insurance cost based on your personal data. Most major insurance companies provide such tools in their official websites, but you can also use the same tool from independent websites or insurance reviewers.

You may think that estimators from independent reviewers are better because there will be no bias or any attempt to persuade you to purchase. It is probably right, but there are still some things you should know about the tool as listed below.

• Independent car insurance estimator usually works on certain networks with a number of insurance companies. Each of those companies may provide the latest data about pricing and available discounts (with requirements for eligibilities). Every calculation is performed based on that data to minimize inaccuracy. However, insurers often change the base rate or discounts, and the calculator possibly does not have the most up-to-date information about those.

• Good estimators can come up with multiple results from one calculation only. This means you can immediately compare the premium rates of insurance companies included in the network. It is necessary for you to make sure that at least two or three insurers within the network run their businesses in your state.

• Every state has its own rules regulating auto insurance. Some companies have hundreds of branch offices spread across the nation in different states, and each branch office makes sure that the provided coverage complies with state’s law of insurance. An online car insurance estimator can provide multiple results for comparison purposes, but it can be useless if the network does not include any insurance company available in your state.

• Please put in mind that car insurance estimator does not underwrite your policies. To some extent, such tool does not need to make sure that the calculation results are very accurate. Based on that, you will still need to contact insurance companies to make a purchase, or visit their official websites to get the actual quotes.

• Online auto insurance calculator does ask you many questions about your address, types of car you drive, number of people to include in the policy, profession, marital status, age, and more. All those questions are merely basic requirements to determine your rate. When the time comes to make an actual auto insurance purchase, a company may send a representative to walk you through the process.